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HISTORY OF GEORGIA
Evidence for the earliest occupation of the territory of present-day Georgia goes back to c. 1.8 million years ago, as evident from the excavations of Dmanisi in the south-eastern part of the country. This is the oldest evidence of humans anywhere in the world outside Africa. Later prehistoric remains (Acheulian, Mousterian and the Upper Palaeolithic) are known from numerous cave and open-air sites in Georgia. The earliest agricultural Neolithic occupation is dated sometime between 6000 and 5000 BC. known as the Shulaveri-Shomu culture, where people used local obsidian for tools, raised animals such as cattle and pigs, and grew crops, including grapes.
Numerous excavations in tell settlements of the Shulaveri-Shomu type have been conducted since the 1960s.
Early metallurgy started in Georgia during the 6th millennium BC, associated with the Shulaveri-Shomu culture. From the beginning of the 4th millennium, metals became used to larger extend in East Georgia and in the whole Transcaucasian region.
In the 1970s, archaeological excavations revealed a number of ancient settlements that included houses with galleries, carbon-dated to the 5th millennium BC in the Imiris-gora region of Eastern Georgia. These dwellings were circular or oval in plan, a characteristic feature being the central pier and chimney. These features were used and further developed in building Georgian dwellings and houses of the ‘Darbazi’ type. In the Chalcolithic period of the fourth and third millennia BC, Georgia and eastern Asia Minor were home to the Kura-Araxes culture, giving way in the second millennium BC. to the Trialeti culture. Archaeological excavations have brought to light the remains of settlements at Beshtasheni and Ozni (4th–3rd millennium BC), and barrow burials (carbon dated to the 2nd millennium BC) in the province of Trialeti, at Tsalka (Eastern Georgia). Together, they testify to an advanced and well-developed culture of building and architecture.
The nation of Georgia (Georgian: საქართველო/Sakartvelo) was first unified as a kingdom under the Bagrationi dynasty by the King Bagrat III of Georgia in the 8th to 9th century, arising from a number of predecessor states of the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia. The Kingdom of Georgia flourished during the 10th to 12th centuries under King David IV the Builder and Queen Tamar the Great, and fell to the Mongol invasion by 1243, and after a brief reunion under George V the Brilliant to the Timurid Empire. By 1490, Georgia was fragmented into a number of petty kingdoms and principalities, which throughout the Early Modern period struggled to maintain their autonomy against Ottoman and Iranian (Safavid, Afsharid, and Qajar) domination until Georgia was finally annexed by the Russian Empire in the 19th century. After a brief bid for independence with the Democratic Republic of Georgia of 1918–1921, Georgia was part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic from 1922 to 1936, and then formed the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The current republic of Georgia has been independent since 1991. The first president Zviad Gamsakhurdia stoked Georgian nationalism and vowed to assert Tbilisi’s authority over Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Gamsakhurdia was deposed in a bloody coup d’état within the same year and the country became embroiled in a bitter civil war, which lasted until 1995. Supported by Russia, Abkhazia and South Ossetia achieved de facto independence from Georgia. The Rose Revolution forced Eduard Shevardnadze to resign in 2003. The new government under Mikheil Saakashvili prevented the secession of a third breakaway republic in the Adjara crisis of 2004, but the conflict with Abkhazia and South Ossetia led to the 2008 Russo–Georgian War and tensions with Russia remain unresolved.
Gradually changing boundaries in X-XI i.v., the kingdoms of Abkhazia and Kartli are starting to become unified, whose king is chosen to be Bagrat III. During his reign, Georgia undergoes the unheard changes such as the construction of many great architectural structures. The most outstanding of all the constructions becomes the Bagrat temple, which is located in Kutaisi, the city located on the western part of modern Georgia.
DAVID IV THE BUILDER
The XII century becomes the century of David the Builder, who made a great contribution to the development of architectural structures. He never was an effort to ship. That is why it is called the “Builder”. The number of outstanding statesmen of David IV is one of the places of honor. Despite the fact that he came to the throne at age 16, he became a brilliant leader. For his 36 years of rule by David IV was able to almost impossible, he united the country was torn to pieces by the enemy. For such invaluable services to the people, the Georgian Church recognized him as a saint.
Tamara was the first female king in the history of Georgia. The period of her reign is called the Golden Age, as it was able to strengthen Georgia not only politically, but also economically. At that time the country had important trading relations with the Byzantines, Arabs, and other leading states. In the Time of leadership Tamara strongly developed Georgian writing, which is proven through a unique masterpiece of Shota Rustaveli’s The Knight in the Panther’s Skin, the famous medieval Georgian poem.
The difficult period in Georgia began in the XII century, when the country was divided into 2 parts. XIV century, under the reign of George V the Brilliant the country was able to rejoin, yet this time did not last for long. The invasion of Timur Leng (also called Tamerlan), the famous emperor of eastern lands, caused great damage to the integrity of Georgia, onto which later added Iran and the Ottoman Empire were added together with the internal strife and invasion of the North Caucasian volumes.
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